July 11, 2020

BAHAN AJAR BIOLOGI MOLEKULER PDF

BIOLOGI SEL, BIOLOGI MOLEKULER, GENETIKA. GUNAKAN eBOOKS. LIGHT MICROSCOPE. STEREO MICROSCOPE (5 – 20 pembesaran). CELL. CELL. Perkembangan Biologi Molekuler dan Pembelajarannya . Bahan ajar terus berkembang sehingga memerlukan updating terus menerus dengan intensitas. Prof_ Sutiman – Biologi Molekuler Dan Pembelajarannya – Download as menyulitkan seseorang untuk melngikutinya secara manual Bahan ajar terus.

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These days it seems like more labs than not are equipped to do their own DNA sequencing, most commonly using an Illumina desktop system. While these sequencers are user-friendly and quick to produce data, biolovi generate reads of only a few hundred base pairs, meaning much long-range genomic information—such as structural variants, polymorphisms, and haplotypes—is lost.

The oligo tags then allow the analysis software to reconstruct accurate, long-range genomic information. Filed under Biologi Molekuler.

A glowing gene tag A new, genetically-encoded fluorescent protein created in the lab of Roger Tsien, who shared a Nobel Prize for developing green bahsn protein GFPis poised to revolutionize electron microscopy.

Klik untuk mengirim email pada teman Membuka di jendela yang baru Klik untuk mencetak Membuka di jendela yang baru Click to share on Facebook Membuka di jendela yang baru Klik untuk berbagi pada Twitter Membuka di jendela yang baru Klik untuk berbagi di Linkedln Membuka di jendela yang baru Sukai ini: The formal evolutionary hierarchy of groups of organisms proceeds from the largest to the smallest groups: Living organisms are grouped according to the type molskuler cells they consist of, either prokaryotic cells or eukaryotic cells.

Prokaryotes have a simple internal architecture without a nucleus. Eukaryotes have a distinct internal structure with a nucleus containing the genetic material. A third group of living organismswas recognized in the late s, the Archaea also called archaebacteria.

BIOLOGI MOLEKULER Pengenalan Biologi Molekuler Materi Genetik

They differ from ordinary bacteria by their plasma membrane isoprene ether lipids rather than fatty acid ester lipids and lifestyle. They are assigned to two classes, Crenarchaeota and Euryarcheota. Tagged as EvolutionPhylogenetic. Cell biologybasic unit of life. Cells are the smallest structures capable of basic life processes, such as taking in nutrients, expelling waste, and reproducing.

All living things are composed of cells.

Some microscopic organisms, such as bacteria and protozoa, are unicellular, meaning they consist of a single cell. Plants, animals, and fungi are multicellular; that is, they are composed of a great many cells working in concert. But whether it makes up an entire bacterium or is just one of trillions in a human being, the cell is a marvel of design and efficiency.

Materi Review Genetika dan Biologi Molekuler : DNA, genes and chromosomes | biologyysm

Cells carry out thousands of biochemical reactions each minute and reproduce new cells that perpetuate life. Nucleic acid amplification techniques are based on 2 different approaches: In this case signal amplification is achieved without subjecting the nucleic acid to repetitive cycles of amplification. In this general chapter, the PCR method is described as the reference technique. Penelitian menunjukkan bahwa satuan unit terkecil dari kehidupan adalah Sel.

Selanjutnya disimpulkan bahwa sel terdiri dari kesatuan zat yang dinamakan Protoplasma. Istilah protoplasma pertama kali dipakai oleh Johannes Purkinje; menurut Johannes Purkinje protoplasma dibagi menjadi dua bagian yaitu Sitoplasma dan Nukleoplasma. Robert Brown mengemukakan bahwa Nukleus inti sel adalah bagian yang memegang peranan penting dalam sel,Rudolf Virchow mengemukakan sel itu berasal dari sel Omnis Cellula E Cellula.

Secara anatomis sel dibagi menjadi 3 bagian, yaitu: Selaput Plasma Membran Plasma atau Plasmalemma. Sitoplasma dan Organel Sel. Selaput Plasma Plasmalemma Yaitu selaput biologj membran sel yang terletak paling luar yang tersusun dari senyawa kimia Lipoprotein gabungan dari senyawa lemak atau Lipid dan senyawa Protein.

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Lipoprotein ini tersusun atas 3 lapisan yang jika ditinjau dari luar ke dalam urutannya adalah: Lemak bersifat Hidrofebik tidak larut dalam air sedangkan protein bersifat Hidrofilik larut dalam air ; oleh karena itu selaput plasma bersifat Selektif Permeabel atau Semi Permeabel teori dari Overton. Fungsi dari selaput plasma ini adalah menyelenggarakan Transportasi zat dari sel yang satu ke sel yang lain.

Khusus pada sel tumbahan, selain mempunyai selaput bioloig masih ada satu struktur lagi yang letaknya di luar selaput plasma yang disebut Dinding Sel Cell Wall.

Dinding sel tersusun dari dua lapis senyawa Selulosadi antara kedua lapisan selulosa tadi terdapat rongga yang dinamakan Lamel Tengah Middle Lamel yang dapat terisi oleh zat-zat penguat seperti Lignin, Chitine, Pektin, Suberine dan lain-lain.

Selain itu pada dinding sel tumbuhan kadang-kadang terdapat celah yang disebut Noktah. Sitoplasma dan Organel Sel Bagian yang cair dalam sel dinamakan Sitoplasma khusus untuk cairan yang berada dalam inti sel dinamakan Nukleoplasmabaahan bagian yang padat dan memiliki molekuper tertentu digunakan Organel Sel.

Organel sel adalah benda-benda solid yang terdapat di dalam sitoplasma dan bersifat hidup menjalankan fungsi-fungsi kehidupan. Organel Sel tersebut antara lain: Yaitu struktur berbentuk benang-benang yang bermuara di inti sel.

Biologi Molekuler | Nadjeeb’s Blog

Dikenal dua jenis RE yaitu: Ribosom Ergastoplasma Struktur ini berbentuk bulat terdiri dari dua partikel besar dan kecil, ada yang melekat sepanjang R.

Ribosom merupakan organel sel terkecil yang tersuspensi di dalam sel. Fungsi dari ribosom adalah: Struktur ini hanya dapat dilihat dengan mikroskop elektron. Miitokondria Baahan Power House Struktur berbentuk seperti cerutu ini mempunyai dua lapis membran.

Lisosom Fungsi dari organel ini adalah sebagai penghasil dan penyimpan enzim pencernaan ajat. Salah satu enzi nnya itu bernama Lisozym. Organel ini banyak dijumpai pada organ tubuh yang melaksanakan fungsi ekskresi, misalnya ginjal. Sentrosom Sentriol Struktur berbentuk bintang yang berfungsi dalam pembelahan sel Mitosis maupun Meiosis. Sentrosom bertindak sebagai benda kutub dalam mitosis dan meiosis. Struktur ini hanya dapat dilihat dengan menggunakan mikroskop elektron.

DNA, genes and chromosomes

Plastida Dapat dilihat dengan mikroskop cahaya biasa. Dikenal 3 jenis plastida yaitu: Lekoplas plastida berwarna putih berfungsi sebagai penyimpan makananterdiri dari: Kloroplas yaitu plastida berwarna hijau.

Plastida ini berfungsi menghasilkan biologo dan sebagai tempat berlangsungnya fotosintesis. Kromoplas yaitu plastida yang mengandung pigmen, misalnya: Vakuola RonggaSel Beberapa ahli tidak memasukkan vakuola sebagai organel sel. Benda ini dapat dilihat dengan mikroskop cahaya biasa.

Selaput pembatas antara vakuola dengan sitoplasma disebut Tonoplas Vakuola berisi: Contoh organel ini antara lain benang-benang gelembung pembelahan Selain itu mikrotubulus berguna dalam pembentakan Sentriol, Flagela dan Silia.

Mikrofilamen Seperti Mikrotubulus, tetapi lebih lembut. Terbentuk dari komponen utamanya yaitu protein aktin dan miosin seperti pada moleekuler. Mikrofilamen berperan alam pergerakan sel. Peroksisom Badan Mikro Ukurannya sama seperti Lisosom.

Organel ini senantiasa berasosiasi mollekuler organel lain, dan banyak mengandung enzim oksidase dan katalase banyak disimpan dalam sel-sel hati.

Inti Sel Nukleus Inti sel terdiri dari bagian-bagian yaitu: Berdasarkan ada tidaknya selaput inti kita mengenal 2 penggolongan sel yaitu: Fungsi dari inti sel adalah: Genetic engineering is used to increase plant and animal food production; to help dispose of industrial wastes; and to diagnose disease, improve medical treatment, and produce vaccines and other useful drugs. Included in genetic engineering techniques are the selective breeding of plants and animals, hybridization reproduction between different strains or speciesand recombinant deoxyribonucleic acid DNA.

In selective breeding, only those plants or animals with desirable characteristics are chosen for further breeding. Corn has been selectively bred for increased kernel size and number and for nutritional content for about 7, years.

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Dogs and horses have been selectively bred for thousands of years for work and recreational purposes, resulting in more than dog breeds and molekuker breeds. For at least 3, years, female horses have been bred with male donkeys to produce mules, and male horses have been bred with female donkeys to produce hinnies, for use as work animals. Genes consist of segments of the molecule DNA.

In gene splicing, one or more genes of an organism are introduced to a second organism. Proteins perform vital functions—for example, enzymes initiate many of the chemical reactions that take place within an organism, and hormones regulate various processes, such as growth, metabolism, and reproduction.

The introduction of new genes into an organism essentially alters the characteristics of the organism by changing its protein makeup. The host organism is often a rapidly multiplying microorganism such as a harmless bacterium, which serves as a factory where the recombined DNA can be duplicated in large quantities.

The subsequently produced protein can then be removed from the host and used as a genetically engineered product in humans, other animals, plants, bacteria, or viruses. The donor DNA can be introduced directly into an organism by techniques such as injection through the cell walls of plants or into the fertilized egg of an animal.

Plants and animals that develop from a cell into which new DNA has been introduced are called transgenic organisms. The scientists then place the egg in the uterus of a third animal, known as the surrogate mother. The result, first demonstrated by the birth of a cloned sheep named Dolly inis the birth of an animal that is nearly genetically identical to the animal from which the nucleus was obtained. Such an animal is genetically unrelated to the surrogate mother. Cloning is still in its infancy, but it may pave the way for improved farm animals and medical products.

For example, by transferring the protein-coat gene of the zucchini yellow mosaic virus to squash plants that had previously sustained great damage from the virus, scientists were able to create transgenic squash plants with immunity to this virus.

Scientists also have developed transgenic potato and strawberry plants that are frost-resistant; potatoes, corn, tobacco, and cotton that resist attacks by certain insect pests; and soybeans, cotton, corn, and oilseed rape the source of canola oil that have increased resistance to certain weed-killing chemicals called herbicides.

Recombinant DNA has also been used to improve crop yield. Scientists have transferred a gene that controls plant height, known as a dwarfing gene, from a wheat plant to other cereal plants, such as barley, rye, and oats.

The transferred gene causes the new plant to produce more grain and a shorter stalk with fewer leaves. The shorter plant also resists damage from wind and rain better than taller varieties. Scientists have transferred the growth hormone gene of rainbow trout directly into carp eggs. The resultant transgenic carp produce both carp and rainbow trout growth hormones and grow to be one-third larger than normal carp.

Other fish that have been genetically engineered include salmon, which have been modified for faster growth, and trout, which have been altered so that they are more resistant to infection by a blood virus.